In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons, bones, husks, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
Genetic evidence suggests that just over 4 millennia ago a group of Indian travellers landed in Australia and stayed.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast.
They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire.
The state is also home to a number of historic buildings and religious sites including Hindu temples of Tamil architecture, historic hill stations, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that humanlike population exists in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 ago before homo sapiens arrived from Africa.
At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km (1,400,000 sq mi).
Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka.
Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, and therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language".The date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE.During the 9th century, the Chola dynasty was once again revived by Vijayalaya Chola, who established Thanjavur as Chola's new capital by conquering central Tamil Nadu from Mutharaiyar and the Pandya king Varagunavarman II.Aditya I and his son Parantaka I expanded the kingdom to the northern parts of Tamil Nadu by defeating the last Pallava king, Aparajitavarman.