The Twa are a forest-dwelling pygmy people descended from Rwanda's earliest inhabitants.
Scholars disagree on the origins of and differences between the Hutu and Tutsi; some believe differences are derived from former social castes within a single people, while others believe the Hutu and Tutsi arrived in the country separately, and from different locations.
The RPF ended the genocide with a military victory.
Rwanda's economy suffered heavily during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, but has since strengthened.
The Kingdom of Rwanda dominated from the mid-eighteenth century, with the Tutsi kings conquering others militarily, centralising power and later enacting anti-Hutu policies.
Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916 during World War I.
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Traditional arts and crafts are produced throughout the country, including imigongo, a unique cow dung art.
The population is young and predominantly rural, with a density among the highest in Africa.
Rwandans are drawn from just one cultural and linguistic group, the Banyarwanda, although within this group there are three subgroups: the Hutu, Tutsi and Twa.
The country has been governed by a strict administrative hierarchy since precolonial times; there are five provinces delineated by borders drawn in 2006.
Rwanda is one of only two countries with a female majority in the national parliament.